Thursday, March 12, 2020

Old Smyrna - The Possible Home of Homer in Anatolia

Old Smyrna - The Possible Home of Homer in Anatolia Old Smyrna, also known as Old Smyrna Hà ¶yà ¼k, is one of several archaeological sites within the modern day limits of Izmir in Western Anatolia, in what is today Turkey, each reflecting early versions of the modern day port city. Prior to its excavation, Old Smyrna was a large tell rising approximately 21 meters (70 feet) above sea level. It was originally located on a peninsula jutting into the Gulf of Smyrna, although natural delta buildup and changing sea levels have moved the location inland about 450 m (about 1/4 mile). Old Smyrna lies in a geologically active region at the foot of Yamanlar Dagi, a now-extinct volcano; and Izmir/Smyrna has been subjected to numerous earthquakes during its long occupation. Benefits, however, include the ancient baths called the Agamemnon hot springs, found near the southern coast of Izmir Bay, and a ready source of building material for architecture. Volcanic rocks (andesites, basalts, and tuffs) were used to build many of the public and private structures within the town, alongside adobe mudbrick and a small amount of limestone. The earliest occupation at Old Smyrna was during the 3rd millennium BC, contemporaneous with Troy, but the site was small and there is limited archaeological evidence for this occupation. Old Smyrna was occupied fairly continuously from about 1000-330 BC. During its heyday in the mid 4th century BC, the city contained about 20 hectares (50 acres) within its city walls. Chronology Hellenistic period, ~330 BCVillage period, ~550 BCLydian Capture, ~600 BC, after which Smyrna was abandonedGeometric, strong Ionic influence by 8th century, new city wallProtogeometric, beginning ~1000 BC. Aeolic wares, probably a small anchorage of some kindPrehistoric, 3rd millennium BC, first habitation, prehistoric According to Herodotus among other historians, the initial Greek settlement at Old Smyrna was Aeolic, and within the first couple of centuries, it fell into the hands of Ionian refugees from Colophon. Changes in pottery from monochrome Aeolic wares to polychrome painted Ionic wares are in evidence at Old Smyrna by the early 9th century  and clear domination of the style by the beginning of the 8th century. Ionic Smyrna By the 9th century BC, Smyrna was under Ionic control, and its settlement was quite dense, consisting mainly of curvilinear houses packed tightly together. The fortifications were remodeled during the second half of the eighth century and the city wall extended to protect the entire south side. Luxury goods from across the Aegean became widely available, including export wine jars from Chios and Lesbos, and balloon amphorae containing Attic oils. Archaeological evidence suggests Smyrna was affected by an earthquake about 700 BC, which damaged both houses and the city wall. Afterward, curvilinear houses became a minority, and most architecture was rectangular and planned on a north-south axis. A sanctuary was constructed at the north end of the hill, and settlement spread outside the city walls up into the neighboring coast. At the same time, evidence for an improvement in architecture with volcanic block masonry, the apparently widespread use of writing, and remodeling of public buildings suggest new prosperity. An estimated 450 residential structures were located within the city walls  and another 250 outside the walls. Homer and Smyrna According to an ancient epigram Many Greek cities argue for Homers wise root, Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Ithaca, Pylos, Argos, Athens. The most important poet of ancient Greek and Roman writers was Homer, the archaic period bard and author of the Iliad and the Odyssey; born somewhere between the 8th and 9th centuries BC, if he lived here, it would have been during the Ionian period. There is no absolute evidence for his birth location, and Homer may or may not have been born in Ionia. It seems fairly likely that he lived at Old Smyrna, or someplace in Ionia such as Colophon or Chios, based on several textual mentions of the River Meles and other local landmarks. Lydian Capture and the Village Period About 600 BC, based on historical documentation and a predominance of Corinthian pottery amongst the ruins, the prosperous city was attacked and captured by Lydian forces, led by the king Alyattes [died 560 BC]. Archaeological evidence associated with this historic event is shown by the presence of 125 bronze arrowheads and numerous spearheads embedded in demolished housewalls destroyed in the late 7th century. A cache of iron weapons was identified in the Temple Pylon. Smyrna was abandoned for some decades, and reoccupation seems to come about the middle of the sixth century BC. By the fourth century BC, the town was a flourishing port city again, and it was refounded and moved across the bay to New Smyrna by the Greek generals Antigonus and Lysimachus. Archaeology at Old Smyrna Test excavations at Smyrna were conducted in 1930 by Austrian archaeologists Franz and H. Miltner. Anglo-Turkish investigations between 1948 and 1951 by Ankara University and the British School at Athens were led by Ekrem Akurgal and J. M. Cook. Most recently, remote sensing techniques have been applied to the site, to produce a topographic map and record of the ancient site. Sources Flickrite Kayt Armstrong (girlwithatrowel) has amassed a collection of photos of Old Smyrna.Berge MA, and Drahor MG. 2011. Electrical Resistivity Tomography Investigations of Multilayered Archaeological Settlements: Part II – A Case from Old Smyrna Hà ¶yà ¼k, Turkey. Archaeological Prospection 18(4):291-302.Cook JM. 1958/1959. Old Smyrna, 1948-1951. The Annual of the British School at Athens 53/54:1-34.Cook JM, Nicholls RV, and Pyle DM. 1998. Old Smyrna Excavations: The Temples of Athena. London: The British School at Athens.Drahor MG. 2011. A review of integrated geophysical investigations from archaeological and cultural sites under encroaching urbanisation in Izmir, Turkey. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 36(16):1294-1309.Nicholls RV. 1958/1959. Old Smyrna: The Iron Age Fortifications and Associated Remains on the City Perimeter. The Annual of the British School at Athens  53/54:35-137.Nicholls RV. 1958/1959. Site-Plan of Old Smyrna. The Annual of the Br itish School at Athens 53/54. Sahoglu V. 2005. The Anatolian trade network and the Izmir Region during the Early Bronze Age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24(4):339-361.Tziropoulou-Efstathiou A. 2009. Homer and the So-Called Homeric Questions: Science and Technology in Homeric Epics. In: Paipetis SA, editor. Science and Technology in Homeric Epics: Springer Netherlands. p 451-467.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Ow hospitals in the health care industries have used new media Essay

Ow hospitals in the health care industries have used new media technology and study the social effects and cultural impact of th - Essay Example In the last quarter of 20th Century computer has started to play its role in communication and with passage of time a new term emerged in the field of communication. This new term was â€Å"New Media†. New media technology is any type of application intended to transmit information through digital techniques, computerized systems or data networks. New media technology is normally associated with information transfers meant to be manipulated in some way. The most common examples of new media technologies consist of Internet-based concepts like websites or digital mediums such as CD-ROMs and DVDs. Anything that is considered old media, such as television, film or paper-based products, are not part of new media. According to Donna Chu (2009, p 337), ‘Although there is a growing literature on new media (Hassan & Thom as, 2006), there is little consensus on what it will actually bring us (see Gauntlett & Horsley, 2004; Lister, 2003). ..... The unsettling debates are largely d ue to the lack of concrete details and contextualized understandings of how new media are actually used on an everyday basis.’ According to experts New Media will be able to alter the meaning of geographic distance. Furthermore it will allow for a huge increase in the volume of communication and provide the possibility of increasing the speed of communication. It will also provide opportunities for interactive communication. The rise of new media has improved communication between people all over the world and the Internet. It has allowed people to communicate blogs, websites, pictures, and other media. The new media industry shares an open association with different market segments such as software/video game design, television, radio, and mainly movies, advertising and marketing. Again Donna Chu (2009, p 338 & 339) is of the opinion that, ‘There are high hopes that new interactive media will add impetus to various social movements. It is in this light that new media a re cultivating a new social space, which is often linked to Habermas’ public sphere (Habermas, Lennox, & Lennox, 1 974), albeit in a virtual sense. Yet as noted by Papacharissi (2002), public space should not be confused with the public sphere. That new media provide forums for political deliberation does not automatically lead to the formation of a public sphere that facilitates democratic discussion. A crucial difference lies in the nature and quality of discussion found on the Internet (Fung, 2002; Tsaliki, 2002). In an era when new media is giving birth to a new social order, studies of the many for forms of collective behavio(u)r in evidence will yield a deeper understanding of how new customs and conventions are being created and maintained.’ Presenting Singapore as a model Terence Lee (2003, p 84) states that, ‘At present, Singapore's e-citizen portal, www.ecitizen.gov.sg, provides the best illustration of Singapore's successes in e-govemment. Launched in April 1999, the e-citizen website offers more than 180 e-services grouped in 16 online units based on categories that address family life, health, housing, education, employment, transport and other day-to-day issues (IDA, 2001).’ From the above paragraphs and quotations it is clear that new media is making huge inroad in the modern world. After looking at different aspects of new media, we will

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Choosing Technology to Meet a Need Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Choosing Technology to Meet a Need - Essay Example include: a high quality display system to showcase finished design projects, a central unit that is compatible and with modern day design soft wares, command input devices, a safe back up storage system, cooperate display system, image capture and internet connection (Labuz 47). The core i5 processor is provides great graphics and multi-tasking platform because it mechanically speeds up since it has an incorporation of Intel turbo boost technology. The boost and a 4 way multi-tasking processing ability can enable it handle very high memory demanding graphic software without slowing down. The wake fast Intel responsive hard disc wakes up very fast- within seconds- hence the ability to resume to work without delays. The same capability is essential because it minimizes power consumption-since it operates on a ultra-low consumption. Adobe Photoshop and adobe illustrator are graphic design software’s with modern design tools this enables easy, quick manipulation of images and editing with the high quality outcomes in a professional set

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Perspective Essay Example for Free

Perspective Essay Everyone can view perspectives differently and sometimes it is hard to understand another person’s perspective. Many people do the things they do because they feel that their perspective is the right one. Personally I believe that sometimes people do not want to look at the others personal perspective because they know that they are wrong with their own. In other words, some people know what they are doing is wrong and do not want to do anything to fix it. In my perspective of being angry with my friend, I was angered that my friend who had been living with me for a week during the summer was not picking up after himself. I had to clean up all of his messes and had to make sure that our living area was not in complete disarray. It angered me because I had to clean up after him as well as myself. I feel that he should have contributed at least a little bit to our situation. We were both away from our homes and were both in the same situation and he just relied on me to be his personal â€Å"maid.† My response to this situation that I was dealing with was that I was very short tempered, and I did not want to communicate with my friend as much. He got the hint that something was wrong, but he did not have any idea about what was wrong. I tried to just blow off the situation and see if he was going to eventually start helping out, but nothing changed. Finally, I opened my mouth and told him that he needed to start helping around the place. He got super offensive and he stated, â€Å"I thought that room service was cleaning our room.† Some people expect things in life, and my friend was one of these people. My perspective changed after I looked at how this kid grew up. He had his parents and his grandma do everything for him. From doing the dishes to taking out the trash, this kid had never done a chore in his life. Sometimes you just have to look at the other person’s personal background and look at how they were raised. Of course it was not the right way to being raised, but I couldn’t control what he was used to. Problems occur in perspective taking all the time because not everyone is raised the same. Many people come from different backgrounds and different societies. We all view things differently and based on the way we were raised. Sometimes your own perspective may not be the agreeable one, and that is the hardest thing to change, especially if you grew up with it.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Snapshots of Love Essays -- Personal Narrative, essay about my family

Most of the snapshots of my life are held in the photo albums of my mind. Some were captured by a camera, and those pictures I keep in a shoebox under my bed. I'm lucky to have "shoebox photos" of the earliest things I can remember. For example, three days after my third birthday, Katherine Emily arrived. I remember my dad taking me to see my new baby sister; we stopped at a gas station on the way to the hospital and bought my mom candy and a cola. That day, the camera caught the tiny smile only a big sister could have as she holds one of the best birthday presents ever. I don't take up even half of a blue hospital chair as I cradle Katie in my arms. She is wrapped all in white, like the little angel that every baby is. My white, hooded sweatshirt has faint patches of sky blue, and just a tiny crimson triangle of a T-shirt peeks out from behind the zipper. Looking closer, a third person can be seen: my mother's wrist-banded hand holds Katie's head up. My tiny arms weren't quite strong enough for that task. That was the first time I ever posed with Katie. Looking at that photo makes me remember all the other pictures I have of Katie and me, even when there was no camera with film and batteries ready to go. It's these pictures that I'll never lose. Before Katie and I went off to school, we spent our days in the tunnels and caves of cardboard boxes and secret hideaways under the kitchen table. Our house has never been short on toys (there were six kids born before Katie and me), but boxes have always been a favorite. I remember being able to easily slide through the long passageways, my back not even brushing against the "ceilings" of our tunnels and forts. Katie had an even easier time ... ..., on the right, Horseshoe Falls bubbles under a mist that slowly rises above the horizon. Katie and I lean against the heavy, black railing, and against each other. Our smiles are sweet and happy, reminiscent of Katie's first birthday. These two shoebox pictures of Katie and me are just two snapshots in a shared photo album, filled with every cake, thought, joke, and sweater we've shared. In the midst of looking through the collection, Katie yells at me, "Hey, that's my shirt!" "You borrow my stuff," I reply. "Not without asking." "You had my black skirt for three months." "I asked for it." I let the fight peter out, not wishing to waste a memory on an argument about clothes. There will be plenty of hair-pulling, name-calling, and angry situations between Katie and me to come. I want to save my film for better times. Snapshots of Love Essays -- Personal Narrative, essay about my family Most of the snapshots of my life are held in the photo albums of my mind. Some were captured by a camera, and those pictures I keep in a shoebox under my bed. I'm lucky to have "shoebox photos" of the earliest things I can remember. For example, three days after my third birthday, Katherine Emily arrived. I remember my dad taking me to see my new baby sister; we stopped at a gas station on the way to the hospital and bought my mom candy and a cola. That day, the camera caught the tiny smile only a big sister could have as she holds one of the best birthday presents ever. I don't take up even half of a blue hospital chair as I cradle Katie in my arms. She is wrapped all in white, like the little angel that every baby is. My white, hooded sweatshirt has faint patches of sky blue, and just a tiny crimson triangle of a T-shirt peeks out from behind the zipper. Looking closer, a third person can be seen: my mother's wrist-banded hand holds Katie's head up. My tiny arms weren't quite strong enough for that task. That was the first time I ever posed with Katie. Looking at that photo makes me remember all the other pictures I have of Katie and me, even when there was no camera with film and batteries ready to go. It's these pictures that I'll never lose. Before Katie and I went off to school, we spent our days in the tunnels and caves of cardboard boxes and secret hideaways under the kitchen table. Our house has never been short on toys (there were six kids born before Katie and me), but boxes have always been a favorite. I remember being able to easily slide through the long passageways, my back not even brushing against the "ceilings" of our tunnels and forts. Katie had an even easier time ... ..., on the right, Horseshoe Falls bubbles under a mist that slowly rises above the horizon. Katie and I lean against the heavy, black railing, and against each other. Our smiles are sweet and happy, reminiscent of Katie's first birthday. These two shoebox pictures of Katie and me are just two snapshots in a shared photo album, filled with every cake, thought, joke, and sweater we've shared. In the midst of looking through the collection, Katie yells at me, "Hey, that's my shirt!" "You borrow my stuff," I reply. "Not without asking." "You had my black skirt for three months." "I asked for it." I let the fight peter out, not wishing to waste a memory on an argument about clothes. There will be plenty of hair-pulling, name-calling, and angry situations between Katie and me to come. I want to save my film for better times.

Monday, January 13, 2020

10 Ways to Keep Fit

The Dorm Room Diet Start chugging. Water helps you curb food cravings and feel fuller longer — all for a grand total of zero calories. Sip on your water bottle throughout the day to stay hydrated and lose some of that holiday weight. Pop in a DVD. A workout DVD, that is. There are tons of options on the market, including Kim Kardashian’s â€Å"Fit In Your Jeans By Friday† series and â€Å"The Pussy Cat Dolls’ Workout. † Um, girls, you might want to stash these so your BF doesn’t swipe them. Pop in a DVD. A workout DVD, that is.There are tons of options on the market, including Kim Kardashian’s â€Å"Fit In Your Jeans By Friday† series and â€Å"The Pussy Cat Dolls’ Workout. † Um, girls, you might want to stash these so your BF doesn’t swipe them. Don’t touch that dial. Squeeze in a little exercise when your favorite TV show takes a commercial break. Valerie Orsoni, founder of LeBootCamp, recommends fi tting in a minute each of marching in place, squats, pushups and crunches, followed by an additional minute of marching in place for a mini exercise boost.Muscular System: Muscle MetabolismDownload an app. Grab your iPhone and download Body Fitness, a free application that offers over 320 exercises, complete with instructions and photos. As an added bonus, download Lose It! (also free! ) to track your calorie intake and how much you burn off from the exercise. Clean up. Vacuum, dust and put away your laundry to get a spotless dorm room and a thinner shape. Just 30 minutes of household cleaning burns 85 calories for a 125-pound person. Don’t skip.While cutting out food might seem like the best way to shed pounds, skipping meals slows down your metabolism, which eventually causes you to gain more weight. Eat regular meals full of filling veggies and lean protein to keep your weight in check. Buy some motivation. Use those holiday gift certificates to pick up some exercise gear, suggests Morgan. Exercise bands, a medicine ball and a yoga mat can be bought online and kept in your room to give you the initiative to get moving.Bust a move. No need to head out to the hottest frat party to get your muscles moving. Crank up the tunes and dance the afternoon away to burn some extra calories. If free-styling isn’t your thing, turn on â€Å"Dance Dance Revolution† for a few choreographed steps. Redecorate. Give your room a fresh new look and give your muscles a rigorous workout. Rearranging furniture is serious exercise, so give your dorm the new setup you’ve been dying to try out.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Declaration Of Rights Of Women And A Public Speech By...

The French Revolution produced many changes both in France and in Europe as a whole. The most evident change brought by the French Revolution was the move from absolutism to republicanism that represents a shift towards democracy. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, which was announced in 1789, was arguably the foundations of the human rights and many constitutions in democratic countries like the Britain and America. The concept is based on the â€Å"natural rights† that were established as universal moral standards and it significantly influenced many revolutions, especially the American Revolution. Ironically, the idea of â€Å"natural rights† was not universal as the rights for women and slaves were excluded when it was first conceived; these rights were only applied to certain groups of people, which is unnatural. The two declarations of rights of man and woman, and a public speech by Frederick Douglass describe similar attempts of gaining the rights, and liberties of the individual but their approaches to the subject are different. The Declaration of Rights of Women and a speech modified the Declaration of Rights of Man to extend the denotation of the other individuals to include women and slavery. Thus, although the Rights of Man and Citizen was considered as a significant basis of defining rights, it only generated more unrighteousness and conflict in the long run as it was missing two important subjects. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is aShow MoreRelatedGlobal Echoes Of Atlantic Enlightenment And Revolution921 Words   |  4 PagesGlobal Echoes of Atlantic Enlightenment and Revolution There are many different crucial sources that demonstrate the global influences of Atlantic revolutionary movements and Enlightenment views on human rights. 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